Application of GIS technologies in environmental
(for example biosphere of Teberdinski region)
Ekaterina Victorovna Kurkina
KUBAN STATE UNIVERSITY-RUSSIA
In recent decades, forest
reserves are undergoing substantial transformation, as related to their direct
economic use and with exposure to fires, logging and natural disasters. The
result is a dynamic equilibrium violation of the forest ecosystem, changing its
biodiversity and ecological functions.
To improve forest conditions of the Teberdinski region and maintain their role in regulating natural processes needed to develop new methods of forest management based on modern information technology. New challenges in the field of forest management requires the integration of existing knowledge about the functioning of forest ecosystems of different spatial level, revising the principles of organizing information for the timber industry, expanding its content. All of these tasks, the most promising in the developed Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to merge the information flows in forest management, forest industry and Environment [Cokolov V.E, et al. 1997].
The purpose of geographic
information system of Teberdinski region operational
support is relevant and predictive information on the
status of the forest areas of forestry and other consumers concerned with
nature conservation, environmental protection, management and biodiversity
conservation of forest ecosystems.
Development and widespread adoption of information technology provides an opportunity to create databases of various levels offers great opportunities for spatial simulation and best analysis of the situation.
In the process of GIS implementation of the Teberdinski region was performed as follows:
1. inventory and processing of material available for subsequent "geo-data" applications;
2. Digital elevation model investigated territory on the basis of scale forest map scale 1:25 000;
3. Created an attributive data base - a critical component formed GIS, which included: the types of forests, dominants (or predominant breed), dominant class of age, height, diameter, height above sea level;
4. Based on descriptions of taxations in the environment created GIS series of thematic maps (distribution of stand age class, diameter, height and type);
5. Determined the structure of GIS, integrating a variety of raw data - from tables to attribute raster images and thematic maps constructed.
In analyzing the data management realized the possibility of building automated thematic maps on a standard set of indicators. It was developed a method of mapping materials management. The methodology is based on collecting material on a regular network with cells in size 250 x 250 m, which is the best choice for further spatial simulation [Pogorelov A.V, et al. 2007].
The work was developed the concept and implementation methods of creating maps for spatial data analysis and management of factors determine the effect of topography on vegetation reserve.
Experience has shown the appropriateness of the GIS into existing studies for examples the creation of Teberdinski region GIS withdraws environmental studies for a new qualitative level.
1.Погорелов А.В., Салпагаров А.Д., Киселёв Е.Н., Куркина Е.В. Геоинформационный метод в практике региональных физико-географических исследований // Тр. Тебердинского ГБЗ. Вып. 45. Кисловодск. 2007. С. 199.
2. Соколов В.Е., Филонов К.П., Нухимовская Ю.Д., Шадрина Г.Д. Экология заповедных территорий России. — М.: Янус, 1997.
[Pogorelov A.V, et al. 2007]
[Cokolov V.E, et al. 1997]